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The classic Black Indians has been updated and reissued. The expanded and updated edition of Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage brings the Native American and African American alliance that for four centuries challenged the European conquest and slavery into the 21st century with additional research and documentary and photographic evidence. Lucy Gonzales Parsons, of African and Indian heritage from Texas, once enslaved, was a charismatic speaker and fiery writer for economic and racial justice in the U. Katz introduces readers to Lucy Parsons, a former enslaved Black Indian, and a brilliant, and fiery orator and writer who became a socialist revolutionary; and to militant Black Indian Congressman George Henry White who introduced the first anti-lynching bill in
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Black Indians are Native American people — defined as Native American due to being affiliated with Native American communities and being culturally Native American — who also have significant African American heritage. Historically, certain Native American tribes have had close relations with African Americans, especially in regions where slavery was prevalent or where free people of color have historically resided. Members of the Five Civilized Tribes participated in holding enslaved African Americans in the Southeast and some enslaved or formerly enslaved people migrated with them to the West on the Trail of Tears in and later during the period of Indian Removal. In peace treaties with the US after the American Civil War , the slaveholding tribes, which had sided with the Confederacy, were required to emancipate slaves and give them full citizenship rights in their nations. In controversial actions, since the late 20th century, the Cherokee, Creek and Seminole nations tightened their rules for membership and at times excluded Freedmen who did not have at least one ancestor listed as Native American on the early 20th-century Dawes Rolls. This exclusion was later appealed in the courts, both because of the treaty conditions and in some cases because of possible inaccuracies in some of the Rolls. The Chickasaw Nation never extended citizenship to Chickasaw Freedmen.
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When Rhonda Grayson was growing up in Oklahoma, summer visits to her grandparents' house in Wewoka meant time spent in the kitchen with her grandmother. Together they cooked peach cobbler and traditional Native foods like wild onions, poke salad and hominy, the corn used to make grits. Cooking was just one way Grayson learned about the rich history and culture of the generations of Black Native Americans who came before her.
She recently presented a series of genealogy workshops at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D. The Cherokee freed their slaves in , and after the Civil War, the other tribes did the same. All but the Chickasaw eventually granted Freedmen full citizenship in their tribe. In preparation for Oklahoma statehood, the U. Congress created the Dawes Commission, which was charged with dissolving collective tribal land ownership and allotting land to individual tribal members.